Home > Peer Review > Parental Alienation Resources: An Extensive List.

Parental Alienation Resources: An Extensive List.

Association of Family and Conciliation Courts (AFCC) Task Force on Parenting Coordination. (2006). Guidelines for parenting coordination. Family Court Review,44, 164–181.

Austin, Jr., R. B. (2006). PAS as a child against self. In R. A. Gardner, S. R. Sauber, & D. Lorandos (Eds.), The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome, conceptual, clinical and legal considerations (pp. 56–64). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Baker, A. J. L. (2005). The long-term effects of parental alienation on adult children: A qualitative research study. American Journal of Family Therapy, 33(4), 289–302.

Baker, A. J. L. (2005). The cult of parenthood: A qualitative study of parental alienation. Cultic Studies Review, 4(1),

Baker, A. J. L. (2005). Parent alienation strategies: A qualitative study of adults who experienced parental alienation as a child. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 23(4), 41–63.

Baker, A. J. L. (2006). The power of stories/stories about power: Why therapists and clients should read stories about the parental alienation syndrome. American Journal of Family Therapy, 34(3), 191–203.

Baker, A. J. L. (2006). Patterns of parental alienation syndrome: A qualitative study of adults who were alienated from a parent as a child. American Journal of Family Therapy, 34(1), 63–78.

Baker, A. J. L. (2007). Knowledge and attitudes about the parental alienation syndrome: A survey of custody evaluators. American Journal of Family Therapy, 35(1), 1–19.

Baker, A. J. L. (2007). Adult children of parental alienation syndrome: Breaking the ties that bind. New York: W. W. Norton & Co. Baker, A. J. L. (2010). Adult recall of parental alienation in a community sample: Prevalence and associations with psychological maltreatment. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 51(1), 16–35.

Baker, A. J. L., & Andre, K. (2008). Working with alienated children and their targeted parents. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 11(2), 10–17.

Baker, A. J. L., & Darnall, D. (2006). Behaviors and strategies employed in parental alienation: A survey of parental experiences. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 45(1–2), 97–124.

Baker, A. J. L., & Darnall, D. (2007). A construct study of the eight symptoms of severe parental alienation syndrome: A survey of parental experiences. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 47(1–2), 55–75.

Baldwin, A., & Tabb, M. (2008). A promise to ourselves: A journey through fatherhoodand divorce. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Barber, B. K. (1996). Parental psychological control: Revisiting a neglected construct. Child Development, 67(6), 3296–3319.

Benedek, E. P., & Schetky, D. H. (1985). Allegations of sexual abuse in child custody and visitation disputes. In E. P. Benedek and D. H. Schetky (Eds.), Emerging issues in child psychiatry and the law (pp. 145–156). New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Benedek, E. P., & Schetky, D. H. (1987). Problems in validating allegations of sexual abuse: Part 1, Factors affecting perception and recall of events. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(6), 912– 915.

Bernet, W. (1993). False statements and the differential diagnosis of abuse allegations. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(5), 903–910.

Bernet, W. (1995). Children of divorce: A practical guide for parents, attorneys, & therapists. New York: Vantage.

Bernet, W. (1997). Case study, allegations of abuse created in a single interview.Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(7), 966– 970.

Bernet, W. (1998). The child and adolescent psychiatrist and the law. In J. D. Noshpitz (Ed.), Handbook of child and adolescent psychiatry, Vol. 7 (pp. 438–467). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Bernet, W. (2002). Child custody evaluations. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 11(4), 781–804.

Bernet, W. (2008). Parental alienation disorder and DSM–V. American Journal of Family Therapy, 36(5), 349–366.

Blackstone-Ford, J., & Jupe, S. (2004). Ex-etiquette for parents, good behavior after a divorce or separation. Chicago: Chicago Review Press.

Bond, R. (2007). The lingering debate over the parental alienation syndrome phenomenon. Journal of Child Custody, 4(1–2), 37–54.

Bone, J. M. (2003). The parental alienation syndrome, examining the validity amid controversy. Family Law, Section Commentator, 20(1), 24–27.

Bone, J. M., & Walsh, M. R. (1999). Parental alienation syndrome: How to detect it and what to do about it. Florida Bar Journal, 73(3), 44–47.

Bow, J. N., Gould, J. W., & Flens, J. R. (2009). Examining parental alienation in child custody cases: A survey of mental health and legal professionals. American Journal of Family Therapy, 37(2), 127–145.

Bowen, M. (1966). The use of family theory in clinical practice. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 7, 345–374.

Brody, B. (2006a). The misdiagnosis of PAS. In R. A. Gardner, S. R. Sauber, & D. Lorandos (Eds.), The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome, conceptual, clinical and legal considerations (pp. 209–227). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Campbell, T. W. (1992a). Psychotherapy with children of divorce: The pitfalls of triangulated relationships. Psychotherapy, Theory, Research, Practice, & Training, 29, 646–652.

Campbell, T. W. (1992b). False allegations of sexual abuse and their apparent credibility. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 10(4), 21.

Campbell, T. W. (1993). Parental conflicts between divorced spouses: Strategies for intervention. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 12(4), 27.

Campbell, T. W. (2005). Why doesn’t parental alienation occur more frequently? The significance of role discrimination. American Journal of Family Therapy, 33(5), 365–377.

Cartwright, G. F. (1993). Expanding the parameters of parental alienation syndrome. American Journal of Family Therapy, 21(3), 205–215.

Cartwright, G. F. (2006). Beyond parental alienation syndrome: Reconciling the alienated child and the lost parent. In R. A. Gardner, S. R. Sauber, & D. Lorandos (Eds.), The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome, conceptual, clinical and legal considerations (pp. 286–291). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Clawar, S. S., & Rivlin, B. V. (1991). Children held hostage: Dealing with programmedand brainwashed children. Chicago, IL: American Bar Association.

Cooke, L. (1995). Parental alienation syndrome: A hidden facet of custody disputes. First Place, Lieff Award, Canadian Bar Association, Ottawa, Ontario.

Darnall, D. (1999). Parental alienation, not in the best interest of the children. North Dakota Law Review, 75, 323.

Darnall, Douglas. (2008). Divorce Casualties: Understanding Parental Alienation (2nd ed). Lanham, MD: National Book Network.  

Drozd, L. M. (2009). Rejection in cases of abuse or alienation in divorcing families. In R. M. Galatzer-Levy, L. Kraus, & J. Galatzer-Levy (Eds.), The scientific basis for child custody decisions. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Drozd, L. M., & Olesen, N.W. (2004). Is it abuse, alienation, &/or estrangement? A decision tree. Journal of Child Custody, 1(3), 65–106.

Dunne, J., & Hedrick, M. (1994). The parental alienation syndrome: An analysis of sixteen selected cases. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 21(3–4), 21–38.

Eastman, A. M., & Moran T. J. (1991). Multiple perspectives: Factors related to differential diagnosis of sex abuse and divorce trauma in children under six. Child & Youth Services, 15(2), 159–176.

Ellis, E. M. (2000). Divorce wars: Interventions with families in conflict. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Ellis, E. M. (2005). Help for the alienated parent. American Journal of Family Therapy,33(5), 415–426.

Ellis, E. M. (2007). A stepwise approach to evaluating children for parental alienation syndrome. Journal of Child Custody, 4(1–2), 55–78.

Ellis, E. M., & Boyan, S. (in press). Intervention strategies for parent coordinators in parental alienation cases. American Journal of Family Therapy.

Fidler, B. J., Bala, N., Birnbaum, R., & Kavassalis, K. (2008a). Understanding child alienation and its impact on families. In B. J. Fidler et al., Challenging issues in child custody assessments, A guide for legal and mental health professionals (pp. 203–229). Toronto, Canada: Thomson Carswell.

Fidler, B. J., Bala, N., Birnbaum, R., & Kavassalis, K. (2008b). Challenging issues in child custody assessments: A guide for legal and mental health professionals. Toronto, Canada: Thomson Carswell.  

Garber, B. D. (1996). Alternatives to parental alienation syndrome: Acknowledging the broader scope of children’s emotional difficulties during parental separation and divorce. New Hampshire Bar Journal, 37(1), 51–54.

Garber, B. D. (2004a). Therapist alienation: Foreseeing and forestalling third-party dynamics undermining psychotherapy with children of conflicted caregivers. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 35(4), 357–363.

Garber, B. D. (2004b). Parental alienation in light of attachment theory, consideration of the broader implications for child development, clinical practice, & forensic process. Journal of Child Custody, 1(4), 49–76.

Gardner, R. A. (1982). Family evaluation in child custody litigation. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.

Gardner, R. A. (1985). Recent trends in divorce and custody litigation. Academy Forum, 29(2), 3–7.

Gardner, R. A. (1986). Child custody litigation: A guide for parents and mental health professionals. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.

Gardner, R. A. (1987a). The parental alienation syndrome and the differentiation between fabricated and genuine child sex abuse. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.

Gardner, R. A. (1987b). Child custody. In J. D. Noshpitz (Ed.), Handbook of child and adolescent psychiatry, Vol. 5 (pp. 637–646). New York: Basic Books.

Gardner, R. A. (1989b). Differentiating between bona fide and fabricated allegations of sexual abuse of children. Journal of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, 5, 1–25.

Gardner, R. A. (1991a). Legal and psychotherapeutic approaches to the three types of parental alienation syndrome families: When psychiatry and law join forces. Court Review, 28(1), 14–21.

Gardner, R. A. (1991b). Sex abuse hysteria: Salem witch trials revisited. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.

Gardner, R. A. (1992a). The parental alienation syndrome, A guide for mental health and legal professionals. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.

Gardner, R. A. (1992b). True and false allegations of child sex abuse. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.

Gardner, R. A. (1994). The detrimental effects on women of the misguided gender egalitarianism of the child-custody resolution guidelines. Academy Forum, 38(1/2), 10–13.

Gardner, R. A. (1998a). Recommendations for dealing with parents who induce a parental alienation syndrome in their children. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 28(3–4), 1–23.

Gardner, R. A. (1998b). The parental alienation syndrome: A guide for mental health and legal professionals, 2nd ed. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.

Gardner, R. A. (1998c). The Burgess decision and the Wallerstein brief. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 26(3), 425–432.

Gardner, R. A. (1999a). Family therapy of the moderate type of parental alienation syndrome. American Journal of Family Therapy, 27(3), 195–212.

Gardner, R. A. (1999b). Guidelines for assessing parental preference in child-custody disputes. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage 30(1), 1–9.

Gardner, R. A. (1999c). Differentiating between parental alienation syndrome and bona fide abuse-neglect. American Journal of Family Therapy, 27(2), 97–107.

Gardner, R. A. (2001a). Should courts order PAS children to visit/reside with the alienated parent? A follow-up study. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 19(3), 61–106.

Gardner, R. A. (2001b). Therapeutic interventions for children with parental alienation syndrome. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.

Gardner, R. A. (2001c). Parental alienation syndrome (PAS): Sixteen years later. Academy Forum, 45(1), 10–12.

Gardner, R. A. (2002a). Denial of the parental alienation syndrome also harms women. American Journal of Family Therapy, 30(3), 191–202.

Gardner, R. A. (2002b). Parental alienation syndrome vs. parental alienation: Which diagnosis should evaluators use in child-custody disputes? American Journal of Family Therapy, 30(2), 93–115.

Gardner, R. A. (2002d). Misinformation versus facts about the contributions of Richard A. Gardner, M.D. American Journal of Family Therapy, 30(5), 395– 416.

Gardner, R. A. (2003a). Does DSM-IV have equivalents for the parental alienation syndrome (PAS) diagnosis? American Journal of Family Therapy, 31(1), 1–21.

Gardner, R. A. (2003b). The judiciary’s role in the etiology, symptom development,& treatment of the parental alienation syndrome (PAS). American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 21(1), 39–64.

Gardner, R. A. (2004a). Commentary on Kelly and Johnston’s “The alienated child: A reformulation of parental alienation syndrome.” Family Court Review, 42(4), 611–621.

Gardner, R. A. (2004b). The relationship between the parental alienation syndrome: (PAS) and the false memory syndrome (FMS). American Journal of Family Therapy, 32(2), 79–99.

Gardner, R. A. (2004c). The three levels of parental alienation syndrome alienators: Differential diagnosis and management. American Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 25(3), 41–76.

Gardner, R. A. (2006a). The parental alienation syndrome and the corruptive power of anger. In R. A. Gardner, S. R. Sauber, & D. Lorandos (Eds.), The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome, conceptual, clinical and legal considerations (pp. 33–48). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Gardner, R. A. (2006b). Future predictions on the fate of PAS children: What hath alienators wrought? In R. A. Gardner, S. R. Sauber, & D. Lorandos (Eds.), The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome, conceptual, clinical and legal considerations (pp. 179–194). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Gardner, R. A., Sauber, S. R., & Lorandos, D. (Eds.). (2006). The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome: Conceptual, clinical and legal considerations. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Garrity, C. B., & Baris, M. A. (1994). Caught in the middle: Protecting the children of high-conflict divorce. New York: Lexington Books.

Gaulier, B., Margerum, J., Price, J. A., & Windell, J. (2007). Defusing the high-conflict divorce: A treatment guide for working with angry couples. Atascadero, CA: Impact Publishers.

Gordon, R. M. (1998). The Medea complex and the parental alienation syndrome: When mothers damage their daughter’s ability to love a man. In G. H. Fenchel (Eds.), The mother-daughter relationship echoes through time (pp. 207–225). Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Gordon, R. M., Stoffey, R., & Bottinelli, J. (2008). MMPI-2 findings of primitive defenses in alienating parents. American Journal of Family Therapy, 36(3), 211–228.

Gottlieb, D. S. (2006). Parental alienation syndrome: An Israeli perspective, reflections and recommendations. In R. A. Gardner, S. R. Sauber, & D. Lorandos (Eds.), The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome, conceptual, clinical and legal considerations (pp. 90–107). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Haas, T. O. (2004). Child custody determinations in Michigan: Not in the best interests of children or parents. University of Detroit Mercy Law Review, 81, 333.

Hamarman, S., & Bernet, W. (2000). Evaluating and reporting emotional abuse in children: Parent-based, action-based focus aids in clinical decision-making. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(7), 928– 930.

Jaffe, P., Ashbourne, D., & Mamo, A. (2010).  Early identification and prevention of parent-child alienation: A framework for balancing risks and benefits of intervention.  Family Court Review, 48(1), 136-152.

Jaffe, P. G., Johnston, J. R., Crooks, C. V., & Bala, N. (2008). Custody disputes involving allegations of domestic violence: Toward a differential approach to parenting plans. Family Court Review, 46(3), 500–523.

Jeffries, M. (2009). A family’s heartbreak: A parent’s introduction to parental alienation. Stamford, CT: A Family’s Heartbreak, LLC.

Jenkins, S. (2002). Are children protected in the family court? A perspective from Western Australia. ANZJFT Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 23(3), 145–152.

Johnston, J. R. (1993). Children of divorce who refuse visitation. In C. Depner and J. H. Bray (Eds.), Non–residential parenting, new vistas in family living (pp. 109–135). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Johnston, J. R. (1994). High-conflict divorce. Future Child, 4(1), 165–182.

Johnston, J. R. (2003). Parental alignments and rejection: An empirical study of alienation in children of divorce. Journal of American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 31(2), 158–170.

Johnston, J. R. (2005). Children of divorce who reject a parent and refuse visitation: Recent research and social policy implications for the alienated child. Family Law Quarterly, 38(4), 757–775.

Johnston, J. R., & Campbell, L. E. G. (1999). Impasses of divorce: The dynamics and resolution of family conflict. New York: Free Press.

Johnston, J. R., Campbell, L. E. G., & Mayes, S. S. (1985). Latency children in postseparation and divorce disputes. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(5), 563–574.

Johnston, J. R., & Girdner, L. K. (2001). Family abductors: Descriptive profiles and preventive interventions. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, 1, 1–7.

Johnston, J. R., & Kelly, J. B. (2004). Rejoinder to Gardner’s “Commentary on Kelly and Johnston’s ‘The alienated child: A reformulation of parental alienation syndrome.’” Family Court Review, 42(4), 622–628.

Johnston, J. R., & Kelly, J. B. (2004). Commentary on Walker, Brantley, & Rigsbee’s (2004) “A critical analysis of parental alienation syndrome and its admissibility in the family court.” Journal of Child Custody, 1(4), 77–89.

Johnston, J. R., Kline, M., & Tschann, J. M. (1989). Ongoing postdivorce conflict: Effects on children of joint custody and frequent access. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59(4), 576–592.

Johnston, J. R., Lee, S., Olesen, N. W., & Walters, M. G. (2005). Allegations and substantiations of abuse in custody-disputing families. Family Court Review, 43(2), 283–294.

Johnston, J. R., Walters, M. G., & Olesen, N. W. (2005). Clinical ratings of parenting capacity and Rorschach protocols of custody-disputing parents: An exploratory study. Journal of Child Custody, 2, 159–178.

Johnston, J. R., Walters, M. G., & Olesen, N. W. (2005). Is it alienating parenting, role reversal or child abuse? A study of children’s rejection of a parent in child custody disputes. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 5(4), 191–218.

Johnston, J. R., Walters, M. G., & Olesen, N. W. (2005c). The psychological functioning of alienated children in custody disputing families: An exploratory study. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 23(3), 39–64.

Kelly, J. (2010).  Commentary on Family bridges:  Using insights from social science to reconnect parents and alienated children.  Family Court Review, 48(1), 81–90.

Kelly, J. B., & Emery, R. E. (2003). Children’s adjustment following divorce: Risk and resilience perspectives. Family Relations, 52, 352–362.

Kelly, J. B., & Lamb, M. E. (2000). Using child development research to make appropriate custody and access decisions for young children. Family Court Review, 38(3), 297–311.

Kelly, J. B., & Johnston, J. R. (2001). The alienated child: A reformulation of parental alienation syndrome. Family Court Review (Special Issue: Alienated children in divorce), 39(3), 249–266.

Klass, J. L., & Klass, J. V. (2005). Threatened mother syndrome (TMS): A diverging concept of parental alienation syndrome (PAS). American Journal of Family Law, 18(4), 189–191.

Kopetski, L. (1998). Identifying cases of parent alienation syndrome: Part I. Colorado Lawyer, 27(2), 65–68.

Kopetski, L. (1998). Identifying cases of parent alienation syndrome: Part II. Colorado Lawyer, 27(3), 61–64.

Kopetski, L. (2006). Commentary: Parental alienation syndrome. In R. A. Gardner, S. R. Sauber, & D. Lorandos (Eds.), The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome, conceptual, clinical and legal considerations (pp. 378–390). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Kopetski, L, Rand, D. C., & Rand, R. (2006). Incidence, gender, & false allegations of child abuse, data on 84 parental alienation syndrome cases. In R. A. Gardner, S. R. Sauber, & D. Lorandos (Eds.), The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome, conceptual, clinical and legal considerations (pp. 65–70). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Kuehnle, K. (1998). Child sexual abuse evaluations: The scientist–practitioner model. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 16(1), 5–20.

Kuehnle, K. (1998b). Ethics and the forensic expert: A case study of child custody involving allegations of child sexual abuse. Ethics & Behavior, 8(1), 1–18.

Kuehnle, K., & Connell, M. (2009). The evaluation of child sexual abuse allegations: A comprehensive guide to assessment and testimony. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Kuehnle, K., Greenberg, L.R., & Gottlieb, M. C. (2004). Incoporating the principles of scientifically based child interviews into family law cases. Journal of Child Custody, 1(1), 97–114.

 

Levy, A. M. (1982). Disorders of visitation in child custody cases. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 10(4), 471–489.

Levy, D. (1992). Review of parental alienation syndrome: A guide for mental health and legal professionals. American Journal of Family Therapy, 20(3), 276–277.

Levy, D. L. (2006). The need for public awareness and policy makers to respond to PAS: A neglected form of child abuse. In R. A. Gardner, S. R.. Sauber, & D. Lorandos (Eds.), The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome, conceptual, clinical and legal considerations (pp. 153–162). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Lorandos, D. (2006a). Parental alienation syndrome in American law. In R. A. Gardner, S. R. Sauber, & D. Lorandos (Eds.), The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome, conceptual, clinical and legal considerations (pp. 333–351). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Lowenstein, L. F. (1999b). Parental alienation syndrome (PAS). Justice of the Peace, 163(4), 171–174.

Lowenstein, L. F. (2001). Tackling parental alienation. Justice of the Peace, 165(6), 102.

Lowenstein, L. F. (2002). Problems suffered by children due to the effects of parental alienation syndrome (PAS). Justice of the Peace, 166(24), 464–466.

Lowenstein, L. F. (2003). Tackling parental alienation: A summary. Justice of the Peace, 167(3), 29–30.

Lowenstein, L. F. (2006a). Overturning the programming of a child. Journal of Parental Alienation, 1(5), 1–12.

Lowenstein, L. F. (2006b). Signs of PAS and how to counteract its effects. Journal of Parental Alienation, 2(2), 26–30.

Lowenstein, L. F. (2006c). The psychological effects and treatment of parental alienation syndrome. In R. A. Gardner, S. R. Sauber, & D. Lorandos (Eds.), The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome, conceptual, clinical and legal considerations (pp. 292–301). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Lowenstein, L. F. (2007). Parental alienation: How to understand and address parental alienation resulting from acrimonious divorce or separation. Lyme Regis, Dorset, UK: Russell House Publishing.

Lowenstein, L. F. (2008). Reducing the hostility. Justice of the Peace, 172(20), 322– 324.

Luftman, V. H., Veltkamp, L. J., Clark, J. J., Lannacone, S., & Snooks, H. (2005). Practice guidelines in child custody evaluations for licensed clinical social workers. Clinical Social Work Journal, 33(3), 327–357

Machuca, L. P. (2005). Parental alienation syndrome: Perceptions of parental behaviors and attitudes in divorced vs. non-divorced families. Dissertation, University of Alaska, Anchorage, Alaska.

Maidment, S. (1998). Parental alienation syndrome: A judicial response? Family Law, 28, 264–266.

Major, J. A. (2000). Breakthrough parenting: Moving your family from struggle to cooperation. Los Angeles: Breakthrough Parenting Services.

Major, J. A. (2006). Helping clients deal with parental alienation syndrome. In R. A. Gardner, S. R. Sauber, & D. Lorandos (Eds.), The international handbook of parental alienation syndrome, conceptual, clinical and legal considerations (pp. 276–285). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Mart, E. G. (2007). Issue focused forensic child custody assessment. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resources Press.

Meadow, R. (1993). False allegations of abuse and Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 68(4), 444.

Meister, R. (2003). Review of Therapeutic interventions for children with parental alienation syndrome. American Journal of Family Therapy, 31(4), 321–324.

Mendelson, Rt. (1998). A family divided: A divorced father’s struggle with the child custody industry. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Mitcham–Smith, M., & Henry, W. J. (2007). High-conflict divorce solutions: Parenting coordination as an innovative co-parenting intervention. Family Journal, 15(4), 368–373.

Moss, D. C. (1988). Teaching kids to hate. ABA Journal, 74, 19–20. Murray, K. (1999). When children refuse to visit parents: Is prison an appropriate remedy? Family Court Review, 37(1), 83–98.

National Interdisciplinary Colloquium on Child Custody Law. (1998). Legal and mental health perspectives on child custody law: A deskbook for judges. Eagan, MN: West Group.

Neustein, A., & Lesher, M. (2009). Evaluating PAS: A critique of Elizabeth Ellis’s “A stepwise approach to evaluating children for PAS.” Journal of Child Custody, 6, 322–325.

Ney, T. (1995). True and false allegations of child sexual abuse: Assessment and case management. New York: Brunner/Mazel Publisher.

Nicholson, E. B., & Bulkley, J., (Eds.). (1988). Sexual abuse allegations in custody and visitation cases. Washington, DC: American Bar Association.

Nurcombe, B., & Partlett, D. F. (1994). Child mental health and the law. New York: Free Press.

Palmer, N. R. (1988). Legal recognition of the parental alienation syndrome. American Journal of Family Therapy, 16(4), 361–363.

Pearl, P. S. (1994). Emotional abuse. In J. A. Monteleone & A. E. Brodeur (Eds.), Child maltreatment, A clinical guide and reference (pp. 259–282). St. Louis, MO: G. W. Medical Publishing.

Peterson, J. L., & Zill, N. (1986). Marital disruption, parent-child relationships, & behavior problems in children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48(2), 295–307.

Pett, M. A., Wampold, B. E., Turner, C. W., & Vaughan-Cole, B. (1999). Paths of influence of divorce on preschool children’s psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 13(2), 145–164.

Pickett, C. L., & Brewer, M. B. (2005). The role of exclusion in maintaining ingroup inclusion. In D. Abrams, M. A. Hogg, & J. M. Marques (Eds.), The social psychology of inclusion and exclusion (p. 89–112). New York: Psychology Press.

Pollack, D., & Mason, S. (2004). In the best interest of the child. Family Court Review, 42(1), 74–84.

Price, J. L., & Pioske, K. S. (1994). Parental alienation syndrome: A developmental analysis of a vulnerable population. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 32(11), 9–12.

Racusin, R., Copans, S. A., & Mills, P. (1994). Characteristics of families of children who refuse post-divorce visits. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50, 792–801.

Rand, D. C. (1997a). The spectrum of parental alienation syndrome: Part I. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 15(3), 23–52.

Rand, D. C. (1997b). The spectrum of parental alienation syndrome: Part II. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 15(4), 39–92.

Rand, D. C. (in press). The spectrum of parental alienation syndrome: Part IV, Critics of parental alienation syndrome and the politics of science: Part I. American Journal of Family Therapy.

Rand, D. C., & Rand, R., & Kopetski, L. (2005). The spectrum of parental alienation syndrome: Part III: The Kopetski follow-up study. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 23(1), 15–43.

Reay, K. M. (2007). Psychological distress among adult children of divorce who perceive experiencing parental alienation syndrome in earlier years. Dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

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 Leona Kopetski,  a Social Worker (MSSW ). She was not aware of Gardner’s work. As a custody evaluator, she described the very same phenomenon observed by Gardner.

Kopetski reported on 84 serious PAS cases from a sample of 413 court ordered custody evaluations in Colorado (63). The assessments were conducted by the Family and Children’s Evaluation Team (FCET), of which Kopetski was a member. Their protocol included structured interviews of each parent, obtaining developmental histories for the children, observations of parent-child interaction and individual evaluation of the child. Beginning in 1988, formal psychological testing of the parents was performed for all cases in which there were allegations of abuse, neglect, or a parent was seeking to restrict or exclude the other parent’s contact with the child. Prior to learning of Gardner’s work, the team independently came to very similar conclusions. Kopetski characterizes PAS as a form of psychosocial pathology in which a parent psychologically exploits the child and appropriates social systems in order to achieve alienation. The team’s formulations reflect a social influence model and Clawar and Rivlin’s work is referenced. Bowlby’s attachment theories were found to be the most useful for understanding PAS. The team concurred with Bowlby’s observation that “strong” or “intense” parent-child attachments are not necessarily healthy ones.

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